April 21, 2024

Isolation of exosome from the culture medium of Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) C666-1 cells using inertial based Microfluidic channel

The prototype was then used to verify the optimum flow rate with polystyrene particles for its capabilities in the actual task on particle separation as a control outcome. Next, the microchip was employed to separate the selected samples, exosome from the culture medium and compared the outcome from the conventional exosome extraction kit to study the level of effectiveness of the prototype.
The exosome outcome from both the prototype and extraction kits were characterized through zetasizer, western blot, and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microfluidic chip designed in this study obtained a successful separation of joplink Exosome Isolation Kit for Cell Culture from the culture medium. Besides, the extra benefit from these microfluidic channels in particle separation brought an evenly distributed exosome upon collection while the exosomes separated through the extraction kit was found clustered together. Therefore, this work has shown the microfluidic channel is suitable for continuous separation of exosomes from the culture medium for a clinical study in the future.

Serum exosomal hsa_circ_0069313 has a potential to diagnose more aggressive non-small cell lung cancer

Background: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) derived from exosomes are involved in the carcinogenesis and development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), showing great potential to be diagnostic biomarkers for NSCLC.
Methods: Serum exosomes were isolated with an exosome isolation kit, and verified by western blot, transmission electron microscopy and a potentiometric analyzer. Five differentially expressed exosomal circRNAs, including hsa_circ_0069313, hsa_circ_0063526, hsa_circ_0010522, hsa_circ_0048677 and hsa_circ_0001946, were selected based on the circRNA array analyses and the published documents in Pubmed. The serum and serum exosomal levels of the above five circRNAs were quantified by qRT-PCR. The diagnostic power of serum and serum exosomal hsa_circ_0069313 was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) test.
Results: The levels of hsa_circ_0069313 in serum exosomes were statistically lower than those in the matched serum samples. In contrast, the levels of hsa_circ_0063526, hsa_circ_0010522, hsa_circ_0048677 and hsa_circ_0001946 showed no statistical difference in the sera and serum exosomes of healthy donors. The levels of serum and serum exosomal hsa_circ_0069313 were notably elevated in the NSCLC group compared to the healthy, pneumonia and benign lung tumor groups.
Furthermore, serum and serum exosomal hsa_circ_0069313 could differ benign lung tumor and NSCLC with AUC values of 0.803 and 0.749, respectively. Intriguingly, the higher levels of serum exosomal hsa_circ_0069313 were associated with stage III-IV, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis of NSCLC.
Conclusions: Serum and serum exosomal hsa_circ_0069313 have the potential to discriminate NSCLC and benign lung tumor. The higher levels of serum exosomal hsa_circ_0069313 are linked to more aggressive pathological features of NSCLC.

Understanding the Role and Clinical Applications of Exosomes in Gynecologic Malignancies: A Review of the Current Literature

Background: Gynecologic malignancies are those which arise in the female reproductive organs of the ovaries, cervix, and uterus. They carry a great deal of morbidity and mortality for patients, largely due to challenges in diagnosis and treatment of these cancers. Although advances in technology and understanding of these diseases have greatly improved diagnosis, treatment, and ultimately survival for patients with gynecologic malignancies over the last few decades, there is still room for improvements in diagnosis and treatment, for which exosomes may be the key. This paper reviews the current knowledge regarding gynecologic tumor derived-exosomal genetic material and proteins, their role in cancer progression, and their potential for advancing the clinical care of patients with gynecologic cancers through novel diagnostics and therapeutics.
Literature review: Ovarian tumor derived exosome specific proteins are reviewed in detail, discussing their role in ovarian cancer metastasis. The key microRNAs in cervical cancer and their implications in future clinical use are discussed. Additionally, uterine cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF)-derived exosomes which may promote endometrial cancer cell migration and invasion through a specific miR-148b are reviewed. The various laboratory techniques and commercial kits for the isolation of exosomes to allow for their clinical utilization are described as well.
Conclusion: Exosomes may be the key to solving many unanswered questions, and closing the gaps so as to improve the outcomes of patients with gynecologic cancers around the world. The potential utilization of the current knowledge of exosomes, as they relate to gynecologic cancers, to advance the field and bridge the gaps in diagnostics and therapeutics highlight the promising future of exosomes in gynecologic malignancies.

Proteomic analysis of serum and serum exosomes, and their application in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

Exosomes are extracellular vesicles with a diameter in the range of 50-200 nm and a double-layer lipid membrane structure that are released by various types of cells under normal or abnormal physiological conditions. At present, according to their extensive biological functions, exosomes have been used in a wide range of research fields and applications, including as potential biomarkers and drug delivery vehicles. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant tumor of the biliary epithelium with the characteristics of cholangiocellular differentiation, which accounts for 10%-15% of all types of primary liver cancer. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma has no obvious clinical symptoms in the early stages, which results in a low survival rate. Imaging equipment dependent diagnostic methods and currently commonly used diagnostic markers with low sensitivity/specificity have necessitated the development of new specific markers for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

In this study, exosomes were isolated from serum using a commercial kit and characterized through nanoparticle tracking analysis, Western blotting analysis, and transmission electron microscopic analysis to prove the successful isolation of exosomes. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that the protein profiles of the serum and serum exosome samples were significantly different. In particular, some high-abundance proteins in the serum samples were significantly reduced or disappeared in the serum exosome sample. Meanwhile, some protein bands (which may belong to exosomes) that did not appear in the serum samples appeared in the serum exosome samples, leading to the conduciveness of subsequent mass spectrometry analysis.

The serum and serum exosome samples of the healthy control and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma groups were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for label-free quantitative proteomics. In total, 547 proteins were identified in the serum exosome samples, of which 341 (more than 60%) could be found in the exosomal protein database. In addition, 271 and 430 credible proteins were screened from the serum and serum exosome samples for multi-dimensional statistical analysis and differential protein discovery. Unsupervised principal component analysis and supervised orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis based on the quantitative proteome of the serum and serum exosome samples could distinguish the healthy control and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma groups well, which illustrates that the two types of samples both have potential in the diagnosis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

There were 15 upregulated and 8 downregulated proteins screened in the intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma group compared to the healthy control group based on the serum samples, while 33 upregulated and 18 downregulated proteins were screened in the intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma group compared to the healthy control group based on the serum exosome samples, and only four of the differential proteins screened based on the two types of samples were duplicates. At the same time, 35 of the 51 differentially expressed proteins screened based on serum exosome samples belonged to the exosomal protein database.

Finally, biological information analysis was performed according to these differential proteins. The molecular functions, biological processes, and signal pathways enriched by these differential proteins mainly involved the innate immune responses, inflammatory responses, and blood coagulation. This study provides a reference value for potential biomarker discovery and exploration of the process of occurrence, development, and metastasis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Moreover, compared with proteomic analysis based on serum samples, proteomic analysis based on serum exosome samples can be used to identify more differential proteins and biological information, and although these differential proteins and biological information may show big differences, the specificity and sensitivity of exosome-based diagnosis and the superiority of exosomes as samples for proteomic analysis have proven the application value of exosomes.

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