Cytokines are glycoproteins that have a regulatory effect on the control of cell growth and differentiation, especially those of the haematopoietic system (hematopoiesis, protective function, etc.).
- IFN-α: leukocyte interferon (formed by leukocytes)
- IFN-β: fibroblast interferon (formed by fibroblasts)
- IFN-γ: immune interferon (formed by T lymphocytes)
Effect of interferons
Immunological activity: activation of macrophages, natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and more.
Antiviral activity: for example in the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis B and C
Antitumor (antiproliferative) activity, for example in the treatment of hairy cell leukemia, laryngeal papillomatosis, myeloproliferative diseases, etc.
Side effects observed with interferon therapy
- Flu-like symptoms such as headache, chills, fever, myalgia, brokenness, asthenia
- Increase in transaminases
- Hypotension, rhythmic disturbances
- Anemia, thrombocytopenia, etc.
Interleukins (ILs) are a set of cytokines (secreted proteins and signal molecules) which were seen to be extracted by white blood cells (leukocytes). ILs can be split into four big categories based on identifying structural characteristics.
This is a cumulative concept that brings together the previously known 12 regulatory proteins (interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 3 (IL-3), interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 5 (IL-5) ), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 7 (IL-7), interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin 9 (IL-9), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 11 (IL-11), interleukin 12 (IL-12)) that communicate between different lymphocytes, granulocytes and macrophages (activation, proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes, activation of granulocytes and macrophages, etc.). Since the number of synonyms is too large, their mention is avoided here. IL-2 affects the differentiation of peripheral blood lymphocytes into lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK cells), which lyse tumor tissue without destroying healthy ones. Treatment with these cells is highly toxic. In TIL treatment (TIL), T-lymphocytes, which are activated by IL-2 and reinfused, are isolated from the tumor material of the patients.
The side effects of interleukin treatment are similar to those of interferon therapy.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless liquid located on your brain and spinal cord. The brain and spinal cord make up your central nervous system. Your central nervous system controls and coordinates all you do like, muscle motion, organ function, as well as intricate thinking and thinking. CSF helps shield this system by behaving like a cushion against sudden impact or harm to the brain or spinal cord. CSF also removes waste products in the brain and aids your central nervous system function correctly. Growth factors of myelopoiesis – colony stimulating factors (CSF):
- GM-CSF: granulocyte-macrophage-CSF
- G-CSF: granulocyte-CSF
- M-CSF: Macrophage-CSF
- EPO: Erythropoietin
Exemplary therapeutic applications of myelopoiesis growth factors.
Treatment of anemia in kidney disease and in tumor processes with EPO.
Treatment of bone marrow suppression by cytostatics with GM-CSF and G-CSF (it has expansion of myeloid cell precursors and shortening of post-mitotic maturation from 5 days to 1 day).
Tumor necrotizing factors (TNF)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a multifunctional cytokine which plays significant roles in diverse cellular events like cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and death. As a pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF is secreted by inflammatory cells, which might be involved in inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. TNF exerts its biological capabilities by triggering different signaling pathways like nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). NF-κB is a significant cell survival signal that’s anti-apoptotic while continuing JNK activation leads to cell death.
- TNF-α is formed by macrophages / monocytes
- ТNF-β is formed by lymphocytes
Tumor necrotizing factors can lead to hemorrhagic necrosis of the tumor without affecting healthy tissue. The therapy is relatively toxic.
The side effects of TNF therapy are similar to those of interferon therapy.