October 20, 2020
Cytokines: types

Chemokines

Chemokines = chemotactic cytokines constituting a superfamily of soluble molecules:

  • of small protein nature (8 to 12 kDa)
  • secreted by a wide variety of cells
  • exerting chemotaxis on leukocytes
  • involved in the development, differentiation, anatomical distribution, circulation and effector functions of these cells.

Structure

small proteins: 8 to 12 kDa – 66 to 78 aa
soluble form → fixation on the glycosaminoglycan of the cell surface

Preserved aa sequence patterns.

Except: Fractalkine and CXCL16 which have a membrane expression.

Type of chemokines

  • CC (chemokines α)
  • CXC (chemokines β)
  • the C chemokine
  • the CX3C.

function of Chemokine

Homeostatic chemokines: directly involved in the homeostasis and homing of lymphocytes and their circulation

Inflammatory chemokines: helping cell recruitment at the site of inflammation.

Dual-function chemokines.

ARMCX2CCL25/TECKCXCL2/MIP-2
BCA-1 / CXCL13CCL26/Eotaxin-3CXCL3 / GRO gamma
CCL11CCL27/CTACKCXCL4 / PF4
CCL12/MCP-5CCL28CXCL5
CCL13/MCP-4CCL3/Mip1aCXCL6 / GCP-2
CCL15/MIP-5/MIP-1 deltaCCL4 / MIP1BCXCL9 / MIG
CCL16 / HCC-4 / NCC4CCL4L1/LAG-1FAM19A1
CCL17/TARCCCL5/RANTESFAM19A2
CCL18 / PARC / MIP-4CCL6/C10FAM19A3
CCL19/MIP-3bCCL8/MCP-2FAM19A4 / TAFA4
CCL2/MCP-1CCL9FAM19A5
CCL20/MIP-3 alpha/MIP3ACML5Fractalkine/CX3CL1
CCL21/6CkineCXCL1I-309/CCL1/TCA-3
CCL22/MDCCXCL10 / Crg-2IL-8/CXCL8
CCL23 / MIP 3CXCL12 / SDF-1 betaMCP-3/CCL7
CCL24/Eotaxin-2/MPIF-2CXCL14/BRAKNAP-2 / PPBP / CXCL7
CXCL16 / SR-PSOXCXCL15/LungkineXCL2
CXCL17
Chemokines

Chemokine Receptors

19 functional receptors listed, expressed mainly on leukocytes and divided into 04 families
each family of receptors interacts specifically with a given family of chemokines:
• CCRs linking CC chemokines: 11 receptors (CCR1 to CCR11)
• CXCRs binding CXC chemokines: 5 receptors (CXCR1 to CXCR5)
• CX3CR binding the CX3C chemokines: 1 single receptor (CX3CR1)
• XCRs linking XC chemokines: 1 single receptor (XCR1)

CCR1CCRL1
CCR2CCRL3
CCR3CCRL4
CCR4CCRL5
CCR5CCRL6
CCR6CXCR7 / RDC-1
CCR7IL8Ra/CXCR1
CCR8IL8Rb/CXCR2
Chemokine Receptors

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